Bachelor of Design (Honours)

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Courses - September 2022

Level 1

Course Details

Conestoga 101
CON0101

Description:

This self-directed course focuses on introducing new students to the supports, services, and opportunities available at Conestoga College. By the end of this course, students will understand the academic expectations of the Conestoga learning environment, as well as the supports available to ensure their academic success. Students will also be able to identify on-campus services that support their health and wellness, and explore ways to get actively involved in the Conestoga community through co-curricular learning opportunities.

  • Hours: 1
  • Credits: 0
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Drawing I
DRWG71100

Description:

This is a foundation course that emphasizes basic hand rendering skills and a survey of drawing from an historical perspective. Studio and outdoor drawing exercises, and life drawing will introduce ways of observing and understanding form, shape and details. Perspective and technical drawing will develop additional skills. Students will experiment with a variety of traditional media such as charcoal, gouache, marker and ink.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Visual Design I
DSGN71100

Description:

Visual Design I establishes fundamental design concepts and processes for visual communication. Students will explore how the elements and principles of design are used within representational and abstract imagery to create meaning. Through analysis and practical application students will begin to recognize strategies for generating effective compositions.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Colour Theory and Design
DSGN71130

Description:

This course will focus on understanding colour as a tool in design. Through a series of alternating exercises in research and application, students will develop familiarity with colour theories and the deployment of these as compositional devices and vehicles of expression and meaning.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Typography I
GRDN71010

Description:

This course introduces students to key developments in typographic history, type classification, and typographic terminology for letterforms and page layout with an emphasis on hand rendering. Students will understand and begin to utilize typographic techniques and develop the craftsmanship required for layout and composition.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Studio I
GRDN71105

Description:

This is the first in a series of eight studio courses that provide opportunities to integrate, apply, and build on the knowledge and skills acquired in concurrent courses during the semester. Students will apply the theory they have learned to projects and exercises presented in this studio course. Techniques for creating layouts that combine letterforms and text with photographic images and drawings will be developed. Students will be required to make visual and oral presentations and participate in class critiques.

  • Hours: 84
  • Credits: 6
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Photography I
PHOT71100

Description:

Photography I is an introductory course to digital photography. Students will learn fundamental camera operation with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera, and image composition techniques. The interrelations of technique and aesthetics will be emphasized. Students will achieve an introductory skill level for the application of photographic images in projects related to other concurrent courses.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Level 2

Course Details

Drawing II
DRWG71200

Description:

This course is a continuation of Drawing I. Students will build on their hand rendering skills, will complete increasingly complex drawing exercises using different media. Students will integrate colour and use a variety of techniques to visually communicate ideas and concepts. Exercises will include the visual interpretation of written and other source material. In addition, students will become aware of, and develop, illustration styles through exercises and projects. Students will be encouraged to share their drawings with others in the course to gain experience in communicating their visual conceptions.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: DRWG71100
  • CoRequisites:

Visual Design II
DSGN71120

Description:

This course is a continuation of Visual Design I. The emphasis of the course is on developing design process skills including research, concept generation, and visual and oral presentations. Students will integrate their knowledge of design concepts and processes while developing new skills and new techniques. Students will work through the preliminary design process and develop the ability to visualize and make aesthetic decisions to communicate competent design solutions.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: DSGN71100
  • CoRequisites:

Academic Communications
ENGL71000

Description:

This course is intended to develop the communication skills required in academic studies, which will translate into useful writing and presentation skills in Canada’s increasingly intercultural professional and technical domains. Students will practice planning, drafting, and revising documents. The complex process of researching, creating, and revising arguments will encourage critical thinking, grammatical writing, and appropriate citation skills. Correct formatting of research papers and effective oral presentation skills will be emphasized.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Typography II
GRDN71020

Description:

This course builds on the techniques and theories learned in Typography I. Students will continue to develop and broaden their awareness of effective typographic applications. Typographic conventions, creativity, visual principles and communication in digital media will be explored. Students will be challenged to solve a wide variety of design communication problems and will be given projects that combine text and images for editorial content, identities, and other compositions.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN71010
  • CoRequisites:

Studio II
GRDN71205

Description:

In this second studio course, students will integrate design concepts with a variety of media to different specifications. Projects will focus on design principles for combining imaging techniques, imaging specifications, photographic principles, and typographic conventions. As well, projects will focus on issues, research, methodology, and process in graphic design. Students will be required to develop and make visual and oral presentations in groups and to participate in class critiques.

  • Hours: 84
  • Credits: 6
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN71100 OR GRDN71105
  • CoRequisites:

Photography II
PHOT71200

Description:

This course is an intermediate photography course, that will enhance students’ skills gained in Photography I, and introduce students to studio photography. As well, digital imaging and software techniques will be developed. Photographs and digital images will be discussed and critiqued in relation to design principles, aesthetics, and selection processes. Students will attain more advanced skills for the application of photographic images in projects related to other concurrent courses.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: PHOT71100
  • CoRequisites:

Level 3

Course Details

Drawing III
DRWG72100

Description:

In this course, students will utilize a variety of digital technologies to create illustrations for specific applications. Through the completion of a range of exercises, students will develop the skills necessary to electronically create images. Illustrations completed in Drawing I and II may be converted, enhanced, and re-drawn electronically. Students will manipulate shapes and combine text and graphics to create digital illustrations.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: DRWG71200
  • CoRequisites:

Typography III
GRDN72010

Description:

Through a sequence of projects, students will deepen their understanding of typography as an effective communication tool. Students will use industry standard software to implement experimental and conventional approaches to digital typesetting. Page layouts will be designed in various languages, and will also incorporate illustration and photography.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN71020
  • CoRequisites:

Studio III
GRDN72100

Description:

This third studio course will provide the opportunity to integrate information from the semester's current delivery of courses with the past two studio courses. The integration of contemporary issues, research methodology, and process will continue in the development of studio projects. Students will be required to integrate complex text and visual information into design solutions, while they assess and justify research used to support design decisions. Through research, select projects will also address specific standards for packaging including creating dielines and sustainable materials. Students will be required to make visual and oral presentation and to participate in group critiques.

  • Hours: 112
  • Credits: 8
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN71200 OR GRDN71205
  • CoRequisites:

History of Graphic Design I
HIST71000

Description:

This course is a survey of the origins, history, and theory of graphic design through an examination of prominent movements and people covering the time periods from ancient civilization up to the end of the nineteenth century. Students will explore how social, political, and religious events have influenced design and concepts of representation related to culture.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Photography III
PHOT72100

Description:

This course builds on the skills and knowledge acquired in Photography I and II and expands on photo studio equipment and methods associated with digital image capture and manipulation. Emphasis will be on specific exercises to enhance the student’s ability to use appropriate software and associated peripherals to prescribed standards.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: PHOT71200
  • CoRequisites:

Group Dynamics
SOC71500

Description:

This course will focus on comprehensive theoretical understanding of group process, personal skill development and application through intensive team work. These skills are of critical importance in both professional and social settings. Through guided exploration and application of theoretical paradigms and practical strategies, students will achieve the necessary skills to succeed in and lead effective teams. The course consists in an intensive experiential approach – learning by doing – enabling participants to become effective, practiced team members with experience applying skills necessary for leadership, analysis and evaluation, problem solving, and conflict management. Individual and team activities enhance participants’ skills to work with a variety of personalities in diverse situations, and to effectively assume various professional roles within a team.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Level 4

Course Details

Digital Design
DMED72200

Description:

Students will synthesize their learning experiences with the creation of original artwork and preparation of files for print and screen production. By working in a digital environment, students will produce multi-page layouts with consideration to file organization, workflow, and best file formats for different media. This course will integrate a number of industry standard software applications.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN72010
  • CoRequisites:

Studio IV
GRDN72200

Description:

This fourth studio course will provide the opportunity to integrate information from the semester's current delivery of courses with the past three studio courses. The integration of research methodology, and process will continue in the development of studio projects. Students will be required to integrate complex text and visual information into design solutions, while they assess and justify research used to support design decisions. Through research, students will analyze market conditions and target audiences in the development of comprehensive design solutions. Students will integrate project management skills in the creation of project briefs and workback schedules. This will culminate in a body of work that will be integrated into a portfolio, which can be used for national and international design competitions.

  • Hours: 112
  • Credits: 8
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN72100
  • CoRequisites:

Contemporary Graphic Design II
HIST72100

Description:

In this course students will explore various influences and critical issues in contemporary graphic design, including accessibility and sustainable design. Students will also assess the role of contemporary graphic design and designers on social, political, cultural and economic life. Through lectures, discussions, research assignments, and in-class guest lectures, students will begin to appreciate the richness of graphic design contributions to society and contemporary culture.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: HIST71000
  • CoRequisites:

Branding
MKT72240

Description:

Today’s leading organizations create and manage their brands in an integrated fashion, with coordination in terms of messages, creative, images, positioning, and timing, all developed in support of overall organizational and business objectives. This course provides an integrated approach to the study of brand development. Topics include the formulation and analysis of promotional goals; planning, organizing, and controlling promotion; creative planning; and budgeting and media selection. Through case studies and practical exercises, students will learn how to reach appropriate target audiences in an effective, cost-efficient and measurable way.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Photography IV
PHOT72200

Description:

In Photography IV, students will create new, and use existing, photographs and photo-based images from previous courses in specified projects. Complex exercises will refine the student's ability to fully understand the potential applications of digital images and motion graphics, as well as post-production techniques. Students will also use professional lighting and styling techniques to document work for a personal portfolio.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: PHOT72100
  • CoRequisites:

Electives: Interdisciplinary
Student must complete a minimum of 42 Hours
Interdisciplinary Elective Details

Level 5

Course Details

Co-op and Career Preparation
CEPR71050

Description:

This series of modules prepares degree level students for job searching for their co-op work terms with the guidance of a Co-op Advisor. Students will examine the co-operative education policies and procedures and will learn the expectations, rules, and regulations that apply in the workplace concerning social, organizational, ethical, and safety issues while deepening their awareness of self-reflective practices. Students will critically reflect on their skills, attitudes, and expectations and evaluate available opportunities in the workplace. Successful completion of these modules is a requirement for co-op eligibility.

  • Hours: 14
  • Credits: 1
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Interaction Design I
DMED73100

Description:

This course will introduce students to the opportunities and limitations of interactive design through the exercises, tutorials, and projects. Students will extend their understanding of current programming and technologies, navigation systems, wire frames for responsive designs, and manage and create content utilizing the skills developed in concurrent courses. Students will develop skills for current interactive technologies and authoring tools for web designs and animations.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: DMED72200
  • CoRequisites:

Studies in English Vocabulary, Diction and Style
ENGL72170

Description:

This course teaches the origin of scientific and literary terms; foreign phrases in current use; borrowing of words into English from other languages; and the relationship between meaning and culture and meaning and content. It also covers topics of English diction and style and their applications in written communication.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Studio V
GRDN73100

Description:

This fifth studio course builds on the skills and knowledge acquired in previous studios, as well as concurrent courses requiring applications associated with technology, software and business. By working with community not-for-profit organizations, students will perform research and a brand analysis for specific organizations. Based on their findings, students will develop a marketing proposal, including proposed communication materials, to advance the goals of the organization. In addition, students will be required to further refine their portfolio during the semester in preparation for co-op. Throughout the term, students will be required to make visual and oral presentations, participate in class critiques, and analyse case studies.

  • Hours: 112
  • Credits: 8
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN72200
  • CoRequisites:

Marketing
MKT71090

Description:

This degree level course introduces the basic theories and concepts in marketing as well as an understanding of how these concepts are applied in the management of a company. The application of the marketing concept is illustrated. Other topics include examination of environmental factors, ethics and social responsibility, theories of buying behaviour, primary and secondary research, industrial and consumer markets, targeting and positioning.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Understanding Research
RSCH73000

Description:

This course will present an overview of social scientific methods. The course will address the major components of the research process, including development of theoretically informed hypotheses, implementation of theoretical concepts, development of data collection instruments, testing of hypotheses through data analysis, and the presentation of research results. The student will develop the skills necessary to read and critically analyze social science research and discuss the ethics of social research.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Electives: Interdisciplinary
Student must complete a minimum of 42 Hours
Interdisciplinary Elective Details

Level 6

Course Details

Organizational Behaviour with International Applications
BUS71200

Description:

This degree level course is a study of individual, group, and organizational behaviour in order to influence the way that people work together to achieve organizational goals. It will also consider cultural differences and how the effective use of best practices must be adapted in international settings. Topics include personality; values; perception; emotions and attitudes; motivation; group dynamics; decision-making; power and influence; conflict and negotiation; leadership; organizational structure, culture, and change.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Interaction Design II
DMED73200

Description:

In this course, students will apply web authoring and other advanced techniques to create interactive design projects that solve complex problems. The focus will be on using interactive technology to create the best solutions for specialized applications, including coding, wire frames, key concepts around UX and UI design and universal design principles. Students will gain experience with current industry software and experiment with emerging technologies.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: DMED73100
  • CoRequisites:

Studio VI
GRDN73200

Description:

This sixth studio course builds on the skills acquired in previous studio courses, and integrates knowledge associated with emerging technology and software. Design projects will  include marketing data and business plans, as part of the parameters. Students will focus on developing campaign materials for sales-based organizations. By working in teams, students will research their assigned organization and develop a range of viable design solutions. Students will develop interview skills and finalize portfolios for co-op placements.

  • Hours: 112
  • Credits: 8
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN73100
  • CoRequisites:

Media Ethics and Law
LAW73100

Description:

Media Ethics and Law introduces the legal aspects of working in the media and designindustries. Students gain the necessary knowledge and appreciation of Canadian law relating to media and are provided with an ethical framework within which to practice design. Subjects include the Canadian constitution, Charter of Rights and Freedoms, copyright and intellectual property, access to information and privacy, criminal code, censorship, slander and libel. Contemporary ethical issues, conduct and practices confronting media and design professionals will be discussed. Students will apply the knowledge gained in this course throughout the remainder of the program.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Interdisciplinary Research Project
RSCH73030

Description:

Students from across a variety of degree programs will work together on interdisciplinary projects. In teams, students will work with a key stakeholder to develop a contextual, rapid prototype to solve a problem. The aim of this course is to give students confidence in developing and carrying out a real-world project by leveraging different perspectives and disciplines. This course will enable students to cross-learn and self-reflect on their professional scope and capabilities.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Electives: Interdisciplinary
Student must complete a minimum of 42 Hours
Interdisciplinary Elective Details

Level 7

Course Details

Co-op Work Term I (Bachelor of Design)
COOP73100

Description:

The co-op work term will provide students with college-approved work experience within a design environment. Students will be provided an opportunity to build skills (physical and procedural skills including accuracy, precision, and efficiency); assist in the acquisition of knowledge in and application of knowledge gained in the academic setting (concepts and terminology in a discipline or field of study); develop critical, creative, and dialogical thinking (improved thinking and reasoning processes); cultivate problem solving and decision-making abilities (mental strategies for finding solutions and making choices); explore attitudes, feelings, and perspectives (awareness of attitudes, biases, and other perspectives, ability to collaborate); practice professional judgment (sound judgment and appropriate professional action in complex, context-dependent situations); and reflect on experience (self- discovery and personal growth from real-world experience).

  • Hours: 420
  • Credits: 14
  • Pre-Requisites: CDEV71050 OR CEPR71050
  • CoRequisites:

Level 8

Course Details

Co-op Work Term II (Bachelor of Design)
COOP74100

Description:

The second co-op work term will provide students with college-approved work experience within a design environment. Students will be provided an opportunity to: build skills (physical and procedural skills including accuracy, precision, and efficiency); assist in the acquisition of knowledge in and application of knowledge gained in the academic setting (concepts and terminology in a discipline or field of study); develop critical, creative, and dialogical thinking (improved thinking and reasoning processes); cultivate problem solving and decision-making abilities (mental strategies for finding solutions and making choices); explore attitudes, feelings, and perspectives (awareness of attitudes, biases, and other perspectives, ability to collaborate); practice professional judgment (sound judgment and appropriate professional action in complex, context-dependent situations); and reflect on experience (self-discovery and personal growth from real-world experience).

  • Hours: 420
  • Credits: 14
  • Pre-Requisites: CDEV71050 OR CEPR71050
  • CoRequisites:

Level 9

Course Details

Professional Sales and Negotiations
BUS74000

Description:

This is a course in professional sales and negotiations, exposing students to strategies for selling creative concepts through numerous role playing exercises. Students examine the negotiation process and strategic approaches to develop, strengthen, and manage customer relationships.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

New Venture Development
ENTR74000

Description:

This comprehensive course will integrate concepts relating to entrepreneurship with knowledge and skills essential for planning and developing a new venture. A group research project will be designed to provide experience and develop skills relating to creativity and feasibility analysis. By working in teams, students conduct a competitive analysis and assess the feasibility of a new business venture. Students apply their knowledge and skills to the creation of a comprehensive plan for a new venture, incorporating operational, human resources, marketing and financial plans as required. In addition to a written plan, students will present their new venture plan to a panel of professionals for review and feedback.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Studio Management
GRDN74000

Description:

Studio management aims to provide students with the skills and knowledge to help them start and manage their own business within a studio or freelance environment. Students will develop a personal business and marketing plan and learn about the accounting principles that relate to managing overhead, filing taxes, claiming write-offs and other business related activities. Students will further their skills in project management to create strategic proposals, project plans and appropriate timelines while considering accurate pricing of jobs and projects. This course will also focus on the importance of business and client relationships and their effect on the success of a small business.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Studio VII
GRDN74100

Description:

This seventh studio course builds on the skills acquired in previous studio courses, and integrates knowledge associated with emerging technology and software along with new venture development and budgeting practices. This course provides an opportunity for students to consider their entrepreneurial options, whether for a specific project or their own independent business venture, including competitive analysis, market saturation, SWOT analysis and financial plans. Students will then develop brand and communication materials by using research.

  • Hours: 112
  • Credits: 8
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN73200
  • CoRequisites:

Thesis I
GRDN74110

Description:

In this course, students will work independently on the development of a thesis topic, proposal and creative design direction for a major project. The goal will be synthesize theories, concepts and techniques learned in previous years and apply this knowledge in the creation of novel design project. Students will research areas such as current communication strategies and materials, identify gaps and opportunities related to demographics, and develop a formal written proposal based upon their findings. The student will prepare the initial thesis proposal including both written and visual material to illustrate and support a proposal.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: DMED73200 AND GRDN73200
  • CoRequisites:

Level 10

Course Details

World Cultures
CLTR72000

Description:

World cultures both broadly and deeply affect and are affected by globalization in ways that unify and divide as well as produce equities and inequalities among people and nations. In this course, students will focus on topics pertaining to similarities and differences in world cultures and societies. Incorporating varying perspectives on diversity, students develop an understanding of the impacted groups, develop strategies which demonstrate respect for diversity, and critically examine social change performed on a world stage.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites:
  • CoRequisites:

Studio VIII
GRDN74205

Description:

The final studio course is the culmination of knowledge and skills acquired in previous studio courses, and integrates knowledge associated with emerging technologies and software.  Faculty will provide guidance to students as they refine their final portfolios and develop a plan for lifelong learning. Throughout the semester critical assessments will be made of final projects that comprise the portfolio. Students will publicly showcase their portfolios to the community and industry professionals as part of a year-end show.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN74100
  • CoRequisites:

Thesis II
GRDN74215

Description:

This course is a continuation and conclusion of Thesis I. Faculty will provide guidance to students as they refine and expand upon the research and proposal they produced in Thesis I. Students will execute a comprehensive design project for their chosen thesis topic with consideration of professional standards, budgetary constraints, and appropriate media. They will prepare and present a substantive thesis that includes written and visual material. Students will defend their thesis at a formal presentation.

  • Hours: 84
  • Credits: 6
  • Pre-Requisites: GRDN74110
  • CoRequisites:

International Marketing
MKT72200

Description:

This is a degree level course in International Marketing designed to expose students to challenges and opportunities that exist in a global environment. Students will examine all aspects of managing the marketing function in an international setting. Students will gain an understanding of key concepts and theories through readings and lectures. Students will develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills through in-class discussions and analysis of case studies. Students will apply their knowledge in presentations, by developing an international marketing plan, and by competing in an online international marketing simulation.

  • Hours: 42
  • Credits: 3
  • Pre-Requisites: MKT1090 OR MKT71090
  • CoRequisites:

Electives: Interdisciplinary
Student must complete a minimum of 42 Hours
Interdisciplinary Elective Details

Program outcomes

  1. Prepare effective and persuasive communications through written, oral, and visual media in the development of research reports, rationales, final design projects and presentations, and thesis work
  2. Apply professional, ethical and legal codes of practice and comply with labour and environmental legislation
  3. Integrate marketing, advertising, consumer research, universal design principles, environmental sensitivity and sustainability into the development of visual design solutions
  4. Communicate and collaborate effectively as a team member or leader, with other team members, clients, employers, and other visual design service practitioners through the application of principles of human relations and organizational behavior
  5. Assess cultural diversity in the development and execution of design solutions
  6. Create plans for lifelong learning, professional development, and the maintenance of technological currency
  7. Utilize critical thinking skills in the development of research, design elements, strategies, and techniques for design problems and projects
  8. Evaluate information and content through the use of research techniques in all aspects of design exploration, development, and execution
  9. Develop and present effective and professional visual design solutions based upon clients' needs and parameters
  10. Discuss the theoretical, historical and cultural context within which contemporary graphic design has developed
  11. Apply financial, entrepreneurial and business management principles and practices in the development and operation of visual design services and projects
  12. Select appropriate media, both traditional and emergent, and interaction methods for design projects
  13. Plan and implement design solutions that meet industry production and workflow practices within budget and time-frame goals
  14. Design a portfolio of creative visual, written, and interactive elements